District At a Glance
Ludhiana is the most centrally located district which falls in the Malwa region of the State of Punjab. For Administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north Latitude 30o-34' and 31o-01' and east longitude 75o-18' and 76o-20'. It is bounded on the north by River Sutlej which separates it from Jalandhar district. The River also forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the East, Moga district in the West, and Sangrur & Patiala districts in the South and South east respectively.
The topography of the District is typical representative of an Alluvial plain, it owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Sutlej River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been levelled by the brave hard working agriculturists of the district.
The District can be divided into :
- The flood plain of the Sutlej
- The up land plain
The climate of the district is characterised by dryness except a brief spell of monsoon season in a very hot summer and a bracing winter. The cold season is from middle of November to the early part of March. The succeeding period up-to the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the south west of monsoon, the period of mid September to about the middle of November may be termed as post monsoon or transitional period. June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust laden winds blow during summer season and on individual days the day temperature by to night temperature. December & January are the coldest month.
The rainfall in the district increases from south west towards the north east. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period July to September. The rainfall during the December to March accounts for 16% of the rainfall the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months of the year.
Rivers & Drains
The Sutlej and its tributary, the budha nallah constitute the chief Hydrographic features of the district. A brief description of these is as follows.
- River Sutlej:
- It takes its origin from Mansarovar Lake in the Tibbet (China). After flowing through Himachal Pradesh territory,it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, some 32 Km East of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil and it flows due west along the top of the district, for some 96 Km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon tehsil slightly to north towards its junction with Beas at Harike during its journey along the district. It maintain and east west direction. It has been a devastating during its flooding fury. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. The old towns villages of Behlolpur, Machhiwara, Koom Kalan etc. were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
- Budha Nallah:
- It runs parallel to Sutlej, on its south for fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins Sutlej at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the north western corner of the district. It is a flooding stream during the rainy season but in the dry season it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are situated to the south of the Budha Nallah . The water of the stream becomes polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.